1 Learning Outcomes

Considering the recommendations on European higher education made in Bologna and articulated by Kennedy, Hyland and Ryan (2006), the learning objectives overviewed in the previous section maps onto broad learning outcome through appropriate assessment. The deriving of specific learning outcomes should be linked to the established specific learning objectives as part of the adaption process for local contexts. These specific learning outcomes should reflect the needs of the learners, the organisation or institution and the timeframe.
To know, I have to…
Acquisition of domain knowledge
the acquisition of domain knowledge is mapped to Bloom’s proposed taxonomy of the cognitive domain.
Level
Sample outcome. Quoted and adapted from Kennedy et al. (2006)
Knowledge:
Acquire knowledge on Mobile Learning
Action verbs:
Arrange, collect, define, describe, duplicate, enumerate, examine, find, identify, label, list, memorise, name, order, outline, present, quote, recall, recognise, recollect, record, recount, relate, repeat, reproduce, show, state, tabulate, tell.


Sample outcomes:
  • Recall appropriate pedagogy for mobile learning
  • Identify and consider ethical implications using self funded personal technology.
  • Describe how the needed policies in a institution to facilitate mobile learning.
  • List the criteria to be taken into account when evaluating the appropriateness of Mobile applications for educational use.
  • Define what behaviours constitute acceptable behaviours when using personal technologies in formal education.
  • Describe how you would manage mobile devices within formal education.
Comprehension:
This is to understand and interpret concepts and phenomena to create meaning of the phenomena of Mobile Learning.
Action verbs:
Associate, change, clarify, classify, construct, contrast, convert, decode, defend, describe, differentiate, discriminate, discuss, distinguish, estimate, explain, express, extend, generalise, identify, illustrate, indicate, infer, interpret, locate, paraphrase, predict, recognise, report.


Sample outcomes:
  • Differentiate between formal and informal applications of Mobile Learning
  • Identify participants and goals in the institutionalisation of Mobile Learning.
  • Explain the social effects of ambient presence as experienced through IM.
  • Classify mobile learning case studies by the pedagogy in use.
  • Recognise the factors that impact on a rural developmental mobile learning service in a resource constrained context.
Application:
Apply knowledge of Mobile Learning
Action verbs:
Apply, assess, calculate, change, choose, complete, compute, construct, demonstrate, develop, discover, dramatise, employ, examine, experiment, find, illustrate, interpret, manipulate, modify, operate, organise, practice, predict, prepare, produce, relate, schedule, select.


Sample outcomes:
  • Construct an a mobile learning intervention.
  • Select and employ a mobile learning application for use in a formal learning environment to enhance the STEM learning of secondary school learners.
  • Relate policy changes to institutionalisation of mobile learning.
  • Modify guidelines for acceptable use to incorporate the use of personal mobile technologies.
  • Show how the Child Act impact on the responses to sexting at school.
  • Apply principles of constructivist learning to facilitate a mobile learning interaction through the use of tablets in a distance learning university.
Analysis:
Analyse, knowledge, concepts and ideas about Mobile Learning
Action verbs:
Analyse, appraise, arrange, break down, calculate, categorise, classify, compare, connect, contrast, criticise, debate, deduce, determine, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, divide, examine, experiment, identify, illustrate, infer, inspect, investigate, order, outline, point out, question, relate, separate, sub-divide, test.

Sample outcomes:
  • Analyse why mobile learning can be viewed as disruptive.
  • Compare and contrast mobile learning to e-learning
  • Debate the economic and social effects using personally financed mobile technology in higher education.
  • Compare the focus and motivations of large scale grant organisation mobile learning interventions in secondary education.
Synthesis:
Synthesis knowledge, concepts and ideas about Mobile Learning
Action verbs:
Argue, arrange, assemble, categorise, collect, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, devise, establish, explain, formulate, generalise, generate, integrate, invent, make, manage, modify, organise, originate, plan, prepare, propose, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, reorganise, revise, rewrite, set up, summarise.


Sample outcomes:
  • Recognise and formulate problems that are relevant to mobile learning solutions.
  • Propose solutions to the lack of qualified STEM teachers using appropriate Mobile Learning solutions.
  • Summarise the causes and effects institutionalisation of Mobile Learning in Primary Education.
  • Argue the use of Mobile Technology in formal education.



To do, I have to…
Develop skills to enable Mobile Learning Practice
The following collection of skills relate to the skills deemed appropriate for enabling Mobile Learning Practice. ECTS (Wagenaar) refers to general skills that are considered transferable and specific subject related skills that pertain to specific discipline. All skills will not apply to every activity equally. A further comment to consider is that not all of the activities of a professional interaction can be explicitly described. Practitioners should be sufficiently skilled to adapt.
Skills are based on what practitioners would do in the normal course of work. However, there are some circumstances in which only some of these skills would apply and not every skill can be assessed in every practical task.
General teacher skills
  • Planning a mobile learning activity
  • Sharing experiences with other teachers (increasing quality in their own teaching and in mLearning in general)
  • Promoting and stimulating collaboration (as mLearning is all about communication, and peer-to-peer supported learning is on the rise)
  • Diagnosing educational needs of the individual
  • Continuous self-improvement to stay on top of his/her field
  • Communicating with peers and learners
  • Encouraging creativity and motivation in the learner
  • Social and cross-cultural factors (as the learner groups keep diversifying)
  • Keeping ethical behaviour in the minds of the learners (e.g. m-bullying)
  • Dealing with new language use (e.g. MXit)
Knowledge that underpins the required Mobile Learning skills
  • Understanding how content, pedagogy and technology interconnect and influence each other. Assimilating mobile learning background, research, pedagogy, challenges and opportunities in order to achieve an optimal mobile learning result.
  • Identifying a problem
  • Identifying evaluation and evaluating the mobile learning activity
Understanding the challenges of contemporary online learning environment dynamic (be it web-based or mobile)
  • Guiding large group discussions, for mLearning this is sometimes based on non-visual information,
  • Ready to stimulate and transfer mobile digital literacy
  • Being open-minded towards technology (otherwise they risk blocking student creativity)
  • Filtering information overload (fed by social media and p-2-p collaboration)
Building a personal mobile learning environment
  • Building a personal mobile learning toolbox: exploring, analyzing and selecting relevant tools, technologies and applications.
  • Understanding the affordances of each selected tool.
  • Providing a set of tools that fits the learners’ mobile device(s)
Effective mobile instructional design
  • Implementing basic mobile instructional design principles (message design, instructional strategies, multi-media utilization, implementation and possible limitation)
  • Understanding the importance of mobile affordances to develop courses
  • Being brief and concise (e.g. mobile screen txt limits)
  • Enhancing mobile digital literacy
  • Understanding the existing or lacking mobile standards and how these effect mobile design and mobile actions and building strategies to overcome them
Change management
  • Identifying challenges
  • Strategizing what happens when a mobile project is operationalized:
    • Integrating personal context(s),
    • Diffusion of innovation,
    • Understanding the impact
    • Keeping a balance between work and personal life (as mLearning can happen at any time personal time management is more important for mLearning as it transcends time and space)),
    • Keeping abreast of developments in mobile learning
    • Supporting mLearning qualities with parents/communities (taking out the scepticism and/or fears)

To understand, I have to…
comprehend the role and impact of the domain knowledge in relation to the application context.
Mobile Learning as personal
  • Role of personal technologies within the application context.
  • Affordance of technologies needed to access content that is only available through selected channels.
  • The impact of prolonged use and related health issues.
Mobile Learning in relation to indigenous knowledge
  • Examples used in adaption of the curriculum to reflect organizational and student needs, ideally, should be contextualized and reveal indigenous knowledge.
  • IP and self generated content.
The value and application of mobile learning knowledge in industry
  • The value of life long and further education within the context of employment.
  • Mobility of skills for an organisation and individuals.
Self created content and intellectual property
  • Open licensing and related open educational resources.
Informal learning through mobile
  • Issues such as privacy and cost are relevant

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