THEME 5: Moving towards Change

Module 5:1
Governance, policy and vision
Module Rationale:
Strong leadership is required from governing structures to fully utilise the potential and affordances offered by mobile technologies.
  • Organisations are confronted with how to negotiate professional development and navigate organisational change leading to acceptance and adoption of the use of emerging technologies.
  • Narrowing the gap between teacher knowledge and perceived learner abilities and capabilities
  • Emotional issue of agency and control
  • Guidance vacuum leading to uncertain boundaries and risk avoidance
  • Agency and control
  • Current technology models such as BYOD/OLPC and total cost to ownership
  • Continuous professional development.
  • Develop contextualised mobile management, acceptable use policies and draft relevant sanctions allowing for due process in the event of a dispute.
  • Forward financial planning incorporating
  • BYOD phenomenon, managing personal technologies in an institutional space
  • Institutionally owned devices and differing models of schemes ownership
  • Managing IT support and additional services such as repairs, upgrading and guarantees
  • Organisational liabilities and insurance coverage
  • Organisational change and capacity building future strategy formalising skills transfer through identifying champions, coaches/mentors
  • Values vs rules as a management strategy
  • Link to performance appraisal and competency development of staff
  • Managing expectations of all educational stakeholders within the educational micro and macro-environments
  • Normative approach to dealing with threats/challenges/opportunities
  • Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2007). Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age. New York: Routledge.
  • Brown, A. L. (2009). Digital Technology and Education: Context, Pedagogy and Social Relations. In R. Cowen & A. M. Kazamias (Eds.), International Handbook of Comparative Education (pp. 1159-1172): Springer Science and Business Media.
  • Roberts, C. (2008). Implementaing Educational Technology in Higher Education: A Strategic Approach. The Journal of Educators Online, 5(1).
  • Nijhof, A., Krappendam, K., & Looise, J. K. (2002). Innovation through exemptions; Building upon existing creativity of employees. Technovation, 22(11), 675-683.
  • Tidd, J., Bessant, J., & Pavitt, K. (1997). Managing innovation; Integrating technological, market and organisational change. New York: Wiley & Sons.
  • Sullivan, S., & Glanz, J. (2006). Building effective learning communities : strategies for leadership, learning & collaboration. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.
  • Hanrahan, M., Ryan, M., & Duncan, M. (2001). Professional engagement model of academic induction into on-line teaching. International Journal for Academic Development, 6(2), 130-142.
  • Hern├índez-Ramos, P. (2005, March 1-5). In not here, where? Teachers use of technology in Silicon Valley schools. Paper presented at the 16th International Conference for the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, Phoenix, Arizona.
  • Dottin, E. S. (2010). Social Foundations and the Professional Preparation of Teacher Educators. In S. Tozer (Ed.), Handbook of Research on the Sociocultural Foundations of Education. New York: Taylor and Francis.
  • Nussbaum, M. (2000). Women and Human Development: The capabilities approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2007). Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age. New York: Routledge.
  • Pearson, M., & Somekh, B. (2006). Learning transformation with technology: A question of sociocultural context? International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 19(4), 519-539.
  • Somekh, B. (2007). Pedagogy and Learning with ICT: Researching the Art of Innovation. London and New York: Routledge. Taylor and Francis Group.
  • Souter, D. (2011). ICT for Teaching and learning in South Africa. Kent, UK: African Development Bank.
  • Straub, E. (2009). Understanding technology adoption: A review of theory and future directions for informal learning with technology. Review of Education Research, 79(2).
  • Spillane, J. P. (1999). External reform initiatives and teachers' efforts to reconstruct their practice: The mediating role of teachers' zone of enactment. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(2), 143-175.
  • Von Schomberg, R. (2007). From the ethics of technology towards an ethics of knowledge policy and knowledge management (A working document).

Module 5:2
Planning and pedagogy
Module Rationale:
Having considered and established institutional structures for managing mobile technology use in formal learning environments, the macro and micro governance practicalities faced during classroom implementation of mobile learning, as an emerging technology, brings new opportunities as well as responsibilities to the door of the practitioner. Components to establish practitioner readiness in the learning environment need to be considered.
Availability and distribution of devices and services.
Lack of cultural sensitivity curriculum aligned local content.
Compatibility across devices and platforms
Lack of suitable contextual best practice guides, accompanying models of implementation and lack of case studies dissemination leave practitioners vulnerable and exposed to trial and error implementations.
Availability of mobile teaching and learning technology tools to fully utilise and explore their curriculum demands.
Infrastructural challenges such as electricity source and supply, wifi , 3G connectivity
Open curriculum and accreditation such as the MIT/Brazil certification for online completion. (in vocational, in-service and institutional areas)
  • Task orientation
  • Learning emphasis
  • Learning theories
  • Class organisation
  • Planning and process
  • Methods of instruction (facilitation)
  • Assessment instruments and strategies
  • Technology choice and use
  • Teacher and learner role
  • Outcome /product/deliverables of learning
  • Timeframe
  • OER/copyright of teacher and learner created content
  • Inclusiveness

Module 5:3
Practicalities, organisation, management and administration
Module Rationale:
The disruptive nature of mobile technologies implies that the boundaries of class, time and space, responsibilities, cause tension that can be addressed through effective preparation and management strategies.
Additional costs associated with mobile connectivity through third party service providers such as data transfer and the relative nature of the value chain of mobile learning.
Ethical considerations
Teacher and learner disposition
Technology appropriation
Curriculum issues
Assessment strategies
Best practice guidelines
  • 1:1 and 1:many models
  • Level of learner competency and/or teacher competency.
  • Connectivity and access.
  • Speed, clarity and cost of services.
  • Availability of tools and services.
  • Number, variety and compatibility of technology tools.
  • Technology choice and use
  • Personal vs institution owned devices.
  • Timeframe and different time zones need to be taken into account when collaborating internationally.
  • Cultural orientations.
  • Availability of contextual and curriculum aligned content.
  • Technical support
  • Existing policies and guidelines vacuum.
  • Mobile learning value chain
  • Over and above the generic skills related to teacher duties, teachers also need coaching and mentoring to improve not only their digital skills but the following skills areas as well:
  • Time management, planning, organisational and decision making skills.
  • Designing learning events to exploit emerging technologies to their full.
  • Flexibility to deal with constant change and unexpected outcomes.
  • Designing appropriate assessment instruments and
  • Contextualising the curriculum through strategies which aim to harvest indigenous knowledge from community experts.

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